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), also known as Turfan or Tulufan, is a prefecture-level city located in the east of Xinjiang, People's Republic of China.It has an area of 69,324 square kilometres (26,766 sq mi) and a population of 570,000 (2003).Turpan has long been the centre of a fertile oasis (with water provided by the karez canal system) and an important trade centre.It was historically located along the Silk Road, at which time it was adjacent to the kingdoms of Kroran and Yanqi.The Tang dynasty had reconquered the Tarim Basin by the 7th century AD and for the next three centuries the Tibetan Empire, the Tang dynasty, and the Turks fought over dominion of the Tarim Basin.Sogdians and Chinese engaged in extensive commercial activities with each other under Tang rule. The Turpan region was renamed Xizhou (西州) when the Tang conquered it in 640 AD, As a result of the Tang conquest, policies forcing minority group relocation and encouraging Han settlement led to Turpan's name in the Sogdian language becoming known as “Chinatown” or "Town of the Chinese".In Astana, a contract written in Sogdian detailing the sale of a Sogdian girl to a Chinese man was discovered dated to 639 AD.The name Turfan itself however was not used until the end of the Middle Ages - its use became widespread only in the post-Mongol period.
(Others include Loulan/Kroran/Korla, Jushi/Gushi, Gaochang/Qocho/Karakhoja, Hezhou, and Jiaohe/Yarkhoto.) The peoples of the Kingdoms of Nearer and Further Jushi (the Turpan Oasis and the region to the north of the mountains near modern Jimasa), were closely related.
It was originally one kingdom called Gushi, which the Chinese conquered in 107 BC.
After the fall of the Han dynasty in 220, the region was virtually independent but tributary to various dynasties.
Until the 5th century AD, the capital of this kingdom was Jiaohe (modern Yarghul 16 kilometres (9.9 mi) west of Turpan).
From 487 to 541 AD, Turpan was an independent Kingdom ruled by a Turkic tribe known to the Chinese as the Tiele.
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The Rouran Khaganate defeated the Tiele and subjugated Turpan, but soon afterwards the Rouran were destroyed by the Göktürks.